vol. 25 (2020)

There are several options to fix slow Mac performance. In the beginning, start the Activity Monitor to check the memory utilization issues. Select the processes you’re experiencing and then press Quit. You can click Quit if it takes up too much memory. Alternately, you could use the System Memory tab to check if there are any other slow processes running within your Mac.

There’s another cause of slow performance for your Mac. If your program that is using a lot of CPU, you should close it. Open Activity Monitor and click the “X” button under the icons. If you’re unsure of which apps are taking up excessive CPU power Try an Google search for the apps. It will give you an idea of what applications cause your Mac to slow down.

If your hard drive is overflowing this can cause your Mac to be slow to operate. Your operating system will run slower when you run more than one program. Try deleting files that you don’t mac is running slow use or move them to a different drive. Open Activity Monitor to see a listing of all running processes within your Mac. There should be a couple of mistakes – this could be an indication you’re using more than one application at the same time.


From the World of the Old Slavs: Archaeology – History – Memory

1. Tomasz Jasiński, Betrachtungen zur Urheimat der Slawen 5
2. Stanisław Rosik, Triglav and the “God of the Germans” in Szczecin in the 1120s. From studies of the religion of the Slavs and its Christian interpretation in the Middle Ages (an example of Otto of Bamberg’s hagiography) 47
3. Andrzej Janowski, Development of Early Medieval Strongholds in the Rega Basin 79
4. Felix Biermann, Vorgeschichtliche Ringwälle der Niederlausitz im frühen Mittelalter und die Lage der polnischen Burg Sciciani 101
5. Andrzej Pleszczyński, Back to the Middle Ages: The longue durée of Stereotypes in the Mutual Perception of Germans and Poles (and Role in History and Culture) 135
6. Paweł Migdalski, Early-medieval Slavdom as a factor legitimizing the Polish presence westward as exemplified by Western Pomerania 163
II. Current Research 181


Sven Ekdahl, Moscow Troops In The Wars Of Poland And Lithuania With The Teutonic Order In Prussia In 1414 And 1422: Two Timeline Questions


Loïc Chollet, Le cheval et la mort. Rites funéraires, éthique chevaleresque et représentation de l’altérité culturelle lors de la croisade balte


Grzegorz Jawor, Portée sociale des stéréotypes concernant les habitants des, villages valaques en Pologne aux XVe et XVIe siècles


Rafał Kubicki, Last Wills of Townspeople in Late-Medieval Elbląg as Compared to Other Baltic Towns (Gdańsk, Lübeck, Stralsund, and Tallinn)

11. Krzysztof Kwiatkowski, The informativeness of Wigand von Marburg’s chronicle and its Latin translation in relation to weaponry 263



Piotr Pranke, Do ut des: The role of Ecclesiastical institutions in the functioning of the Carolingian and Ottonian trade system

13. Joanna Sobiesiak, A bronze seven-branch candelabra that was purportedly brought to Prague from Vladislav II’s Italian expedition of 1158. Lore on the artifact in medieval and modern Czech texts 333

Adrien Quéret-Podesta, Le problème des compilations annalistiques étrangères utilisées
par les plus anciennes annales polonaises à la lumière des recherches récentes

15. Agnieszka Teterycz-Puzio, “Bolesław, Duke of Greater Poland, Mazovia, and Łęczyca”. Who was the first Piast owner of Szczerbiec – the jagged coronation sword of Polish kings? 359
16. Wiesław Długokęcki, Aus der Geschichte der Karavelle „Peter von Danzig” 373
III. In Memoriam 411

Professor János Bak (1929-2020)

Professor Jerzy Hauziński (1946-2020) 419
IV. Book Notices 425

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